82, 83. DOG-DAY CICADAS. Tibicen spp. Nymphs can be collected as they emerge or by digging through root systems of woody ornamental plants, killed in a preservative fluid (e.g. KAAD) and stored in alcohol. Adults can be reared or collected with a net, killed and mounted on an insect pin.
84, 85. THREECORNERED ALFALFA HOPPER, Spissistilus festinus Say. Adult and nymphal stages can be collected by sweeping soybean or alfalfa fields and weedy areas. Adults should be killed (by freezing, heat or killing agent such as ethyl acetate) and mounted on insect pins. Nymphs should be preserved in alcohol.
86, 87. TWO-LINED SPITTLEBUG, Prosapia bicinta (Say). Adults can be collected from tall weed grassy areas using a sweep net. They should be killed and mounted on insect pins. Immatures can be teased out from their frothy spittle masses and preserved in alcohol.
88. LEAFHOPPERS, many species. Leafhoppers are readily attracted to lights. They can be collected there or from infested plants such as weeds and other host plants using a sweep net. Adults can be killed and glued to card points mounted on insect pins. Nymphs can be killed and preserved in alcohol.
89, 90. SHARPSHOOTERS, Homalodisca spp., Graphocephala spp. and others. Adults are difficult to capture. A sweep net can be used to collect them from host plants. They can be killed by freezing or in a jar containing a toxicant and mounted on an insect pin or glued to a card point mounted on an insect pin. Nymphal stages should be killed and preserved in alcohol.
91. POTATO OR TOMATO PSYLLID, Paratrioza cockerelli (Sulc). All stages can be killed and preserved in alcohol, although winged adults can also be glued to a card point mounted on an insect pin.
92-94. HACKBERRY GALL PSYLLIDS, Pachypsylla spp. All stages can be preserved in alcohol. Adults can be killed by freezing or in a toxicant-containing jar before being glued to a card point mounted on an insect pin.
95. YAUPON PSYLLID GALL, Gyropsylla ilicis (Ashmead). Adults can be collected from yaupon foliage in early spring (late-February through early-March). They can be killed and mounted on card points affixed to insect pins or preserved in alcohol. Immatures and damaged leaves can be preserved in alcohol.
96. CITRUS BLACKFLY, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby. Leaves from infested plants can be preserved dry or in alcohol.
97, 98. SWEETPOTATO/SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)/Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring. Sweetpotato/silverleaf whitefly adults often concentrate on younger leaves where oviposition is highest. Following the development of the plant, larger nymphs are typically more numerous on older leaves. Direct observation and use of yellow sticky traps are useful methods for monitoring whiteflies. The most valuable stage for taxonomic purposes is the empty pupal skin which can be collected by picking infested leaves and storing them in envelopes.
99. COTTON OR MELON APHID, Aphis gossypii Glover. Aphids can be collected form infested plants using a fine brush and placed in alcohol.
100. OLEANDER APHID, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe. Aphids can be collected and preserved in alcohol.
101. WOOLLY APPLE APHID, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Aphids can be collected with a fine brush and preserved in alcohol, although the waxy masses will dissolve. Waxy masses can be preserved by freezing infested leaf specimens and storing them dry in a vial or small box.
102. YELLOW PECAN AND BLACKMARGINED APHIDS, Monelliopsis pecanis Bissel and Monellia caryella (Fitch).Kill and preserve all stages in alcohol.
103. GREEN PEACH APHID, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Aphids are best collected and preserved in alcohol.
104-107. GREENBUG, Schizaphis graminum (Rodani). Adults and nymphs can be collected from infested host plants using a small paint brush and preserved in alcohol.
108. CRAPEMYRTLE APHID, Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy). Nymphal and adult stages can be removed from infested crapemyrtle leaves with a fine paint brush and preserved in alcohol.
109. PECAN PHYLLOXERA, Phylloxera devastatrix Pergande and P. notabilis Pergande. Galls can be collected and preserved dry in boxes or mounted on an insect pin. The small, soft-bodied insects should be killed and preserved in alcohol.
110. “WAX” SCALES, Ceroplastes spp. Scales can be collected from leaves and stems of host plants like hollies, frozen, dried and stored in boxes or vials to keep them from contacting surfaces. They can also be stored in alcohol, although wax may dissolve.
111, 112. BROWN SOFT SCALE, Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus. Infested parts of plants can be clipped or scales and crawlers can be removed from infested host plants with a fine brush and preserved in alcohol.
TEA SCALE, Fiorinia theae Green. Infested leaves can be collected and preserved in alcohol or frozen before gluing them to a card and mounting them on a pin.
113. WHITE PEACH SCALE, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzwtt). Pieces of infested bark can be removed and mounted on an insect pin. White waxy masses disappear when submerged in alcohol, although this is another way to preserve these insects.
114. SAN JOSE SCALE, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock). Infested pieces of bark, twigs and leaves can be mounted on insect pins or preserved in alcohol.
115. EUONYMOUS SCALE, Unaspis euonymi Comstock. Infested leaves and branches can be removed from the foliage and placed in a plastic bag to rear crawlers and adult males or they can be frozen before being glued to a piece of cardboard and mounted on an insect pin. Storage of white scales in alcohol will cause the white wax on male scales to disappear and green leaves to lose their color to the fluid.
118. LONGTAILED MEALYBUG, Pseudococcus longispinus (Tarioni-Tozzetti).
RHODESGRASS MEALYBUG, Antonina graminis (Maskell). Turf and forage grasses suspected of being infested can be pulled up by the roots and the crown of the plant inspected for white sack-like objects bearing hair-like excretory tubes. All stages can be placed in a vial and be preserved dry (to maintain the wax sack) or in alcohol.